canon law mass

Now if the electrical power is out, many Catholics won’t even hear that the bishop has said that, but in the end it doesn’t really matter: if the weather is genuinely too treacherous to attempt to travel to church for Mass on a particular Sunday, consider yourself dispensed from the obligation. After being caught and condemned again to death, he was hanged, drawn and quartered in London. it is certain that the excess over the sum fixed in the diocese was given for Today, the relics of Saint John Southworth are honored in Westminster Cathedral—the Catholic cathedral in London, not to be confused with non-Catholic Westminster Abbey—and Catholics praying at his tomb are a common sight. THE SACRAMENT OF PENANCE (Cann. In short, there is no better way for a Catholic to worship God than to devoutly attend Mass. Think about that for a moment: the Pope is praising priests who disobey the (illegal) directives of their bishops. The pastor and the rector of a church diseases—and it holds up for worldwide emulation numerous clergy who over the centuries handled these situations a bit differently. Our Lord Himself made much the same statement about character, in His well known description of the Good Shepherd: I am the good shepherd. Click here for more information. (See “Are Catholics Supposed to Abstain from Meat Every Friday?” for more on what a Conference of Bishops, a.k.a. Blessed Miguel Agustin Pro (1891-1927) was a Mexican Jesuit priest who lived during the regime of Mexican President Calles, who brutally persecuted the Catholic Church and unapologetically sought to stamp it out altogether, executing thousands of priests in the process. In fact, the deepest root of his dedication to others was his passionate love for Jesus Christ and his ardent desire to empathize with Him, even in his death. (To confer sacraments legally in a diocese, for instance, the Code requires that a priest obtain faculties from the bishop.) It is the internal ecclesiastical law, or operational policy, governing the Catholic Church (both the Latin Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches), the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, and the individual national churches within the Anglican Comm… For this reason, the faithful are obliged to participate in the Eucharist on days of obligation, unless excused for a serious reason (for example, illness, the care of infants) or dispensed by their own pastor. But with the promulgation of the 1983 Code of Canon Law, the rule was broadened even further. As was already discussed above, many people may consider themselves dispensed from their Sunday obligation; and to the extent that it’s possible to sit far apart, avoid coughing on others, refrain from shaking hands, etc., it’s only prudent to take these precautions. 952 §1. As was discussed at length in “How Can You Get a Permanent Dispensation From Attending Sunday Mass?” the requirement to attend Mass on Sundays and Holydays of Obligation (cc. Blessed Antonio of Olmedo was a priest and member of the Mercedarians, who died of the plague in Chile, which he caught from those sick Catholics to whom he was ministering. Our LLM in Canon Law is the first degree of its type at a British University since the Reformation. You should consider yourself dispensed and not feel a shred of guilt about it! Now, nobody is suggesting that in areas which have become hot-spots for the virus, everyone should crowd into church for Sunday Mass exactly as usual. In the past Cathy has published articles both in scholarly journals and on various popular Catholic websites, including Real Presence Communications and Catholic Exchange. To date, it doesn’t appear that any of them have. A priest who celebrates several What is canon law and why is it important? Canon Law regarding Mass Offerings. Take a look at this heartbreaking true story, recently recounted on this outstanding Catholic website in Canada: My 84 year old mother-in-law is having surgery this morning. Those who entrust to others Masses to be and accepted. If they had been disobedient, they wouldn’t be saints!”  To this, one response should suffice: Saint Damien De Veuster of Moloka’i. When (and How Much) Can a Bishop Tax a Parish. As the old saying goes, “A crisis does not build character. Commentary on Mass Facing the Altar (Ad Oreintem) Description. Can. Anybody who knows a thing about the long life of Karol Wojtyła/John Paul II will tell you that this man of God, who spent decades as a cleric ministering to the people of communist Poland, did everything humanly possible to ensure that the Polish faithful were not deprived of Mass or the sacraments—including bravely standing up to the communist government when necessary. The priest made repeated requests for building materials and medicines, as well as for a second priest to assist him (and also to hear Damien’s own confessions, since his inability to receive this sacrament clearly distressed him), who never arrived. him personally. 1 Tim 1:18), not the kind that brings division but the kind that gathers people together. Canon law (from Ancient Greek: κανών, kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members. Before the liturgical reforms of the Second Vatican Council, the single eucharistic prayer used universally in the Latin Mass was called the Roman Canon. Readers from all around the world have emailed to ask fundamentally the same question: can a diocesan bishop actually cancel all public Masses, thus actively preventing the faithful from getting to Mass and receiving the sacraments? 948 Separate Masses are to be applied for the It is for the provincial council or a Please note: the Law Bod holds very little printed material in canon law on its open shelves. Once again, we can turn to events and individuals in the Church’s historical past for guidance. Can. Father Damien, working all alone, set out to establish a Catholic mission among the lepers, building a church with his own hands, setting up a hospital and a school, and striving to establish an orderly and moral way of daily life for the poor suffering residents of the island. §3. In accord with the approved practice of the Church, any priest celebrating or concelebrating is permitted to receive an offering to apply the Mass for a specific intention. No discussion of the heroism of priests in times of civil persecution would be complete without mentioning the hundreds of English martyrs, who died in the Catholic persecutions of the 16th and 17th centuries. 954 If in certain churches or oratories more Then-Pope John Paul II publicly described what he considered to have been Father Pro’s greatest achievements: One reason for joy for the Universal Church and, especially for the Church of Mexico, is the beatification of Father Miguel Agustin Pro, a Jesuit priest whose virtues we today praise and offer to the people of God. Before his arrival, those who were diagnosed with leprosy on other islands in the then-Kingdom of Hawaii—which today is part of the United States—were quarantined (again, sound familiar?) Can. Today, of course, he is not only a saint, but the Church also established him as the patron saint of bishops and cardinals. God alone knows the number of Catholic priests around the world, who over the centuries have had to struggle to minister to the faithful while risking arrest by a government hostile to the faith. THE OFFERING GIVEN FOR THE CELEBRATION OF MASS Can. Here is another fine example of a bishop who is clearly mindful of his responsibility for the spiritual wellbeing of those who are entrusted to his care. province the offering to be given for the celebration and application of Mass, by the ordinary, while allowing for some recompense by reason of an extrinsic The young Father Pro became a master at disguising himself, successfully eluding civil authorities in order to travel around and secretly minister to the faithful. Q1: The Irish Bishops have decided to cancel all public Masses and have told us that we have a dispensation from Sunday Mass obligations as a result of the Coronavirus. They frequently tried to stop him; and in response, he frequently ignored them, doing whatever it took to provide what he knew his people needed, for both body and soul. causes or those obliged in any way to see to the celebration of Masses, whether for them to be celebrated elsewhere unless the donors have expressly indicated Members of all religious institutes must also §2. Today, that particular period of plague is known as “the Plague of St. Charles,” because the Archbishop pointedly did not flee the city, instead personally attending to the thousands of sick and expending his own money to relieve them. He arranged for Masses to be celebrated outdoors (where tents had been erected to care for the thousands of sick), initiated Eucharistic Adoration throughout the archdiocese, and led processions through the streets. 945 § 1. In short, the Pope was telling Catholic clergy, “Man up and serve your people, don’t behave like that!”. Every organization, whether secular or religious, requires … on Moloka’i, which basically meant that they were unceremoniously dumped there and left to die, unable ever to receive visitors or return home again. §2. Contrasted with the imperial or Caesarian law (jus caesareum), canon law is sometimes styled pontifical law (jus pontificium), often also it is termed sacred law (jus sacrum), and sometimes even Divine law (jus divinum: c. 2, De privil. And in an apparent attempt to assuage their own consciences, some of them (like the American archbishop quoted above) insist that they are abandoning the faithful for good motives, which evidently in their minds somehow makes it okay. (Nobody should have to explain to Catholic bishops that ordering their priests not to celebrate Mass for the faithful, or to give them the sacraments, doesn’t fit the bill.) It’s worth noting, by the way, that St. Charles himself survived, despite his extensive contact with those who were infected. In these places, priests who are caught saying Mass with a congregation—no matter how sparse—face arrest and imprisonment. permitted to accept for the application of a Mass a voluntary offering which is Archbishop. To sum up: if you, a member of the Catholic faithful, are genuinely unable to get to Sunday Mass, then you don’t have to go. The time within which Masses must be celebrated 957 The duty and right of exercising The old canon 857 of the 1917 code was reworked and became the current canon 917. The canon law of the Catholic Church (Latin: ius canonicum) is the system of laws and legal principles made and enforced by the hierarchical authorities of the Catholic Church to regulate its external organization and government and to order and direct the activities of Catholics toward the mission of the Church. Not without fear and repugnance, he chose to go to the Island of Molokai to serve the lepers who lived there, abandoned by all. a special book in which they note accurately the number of Masses to be It should be relatively easy to apply all this to the Coronavirus situation. It would be imprudent for any bishop to risk the spread of infection!”  Such people are conveniently forgetting that the Church has, in its nearly 2000-year history, plenty of experience dealing with widespread (and often far worse!) Regarding Mass Stipends, the Canon Law of the Catholic Church states: Canon Law # 945 §1 "In accordance with the approved custom of the Church, any priest who celebrates or concelebrates a Mass may accept an offering to apply the Mass for a specific intention. All rights reserved. Have you got something better to do?”. 959 - 997) CHAPTER I. Similarly, the Church has always equated “keeping the Sabbath holy” with “Mass attendance,” since it holds that the Eucharist is the source and summit of the Christian life (c. 897, which is based on Lumen Gentium 11). Now contrast his declaration with that of this American archbishop, who—as incredible as it may seem—actually said this publicly, as he cancelled all public Masses throughout his archdiocese: My number one priority as your Archbishop is to ensure the safety and health of all who attend our Masses, the children in our schools, and those we welcome through our outreach and services. Can. §2. But let’s look at two examples of Catholic priests who courageously risked their lives—and lost them—in order to provide for the spiritual needs of the faithful. 951 §1. As Marc rightly puts it, this “essentially prohibit[s] all public worship on an open-ended basis.”  Can a bishop do this? Canon 951.1 is very clear that, while a priest may celebrate multiple Masses, with a different intention for each one, he may keep only the stipend for one Mass. You would be wrong. Being a spineless coward, Don Abbondio does exactly that, because (as the text makes clear) his primary concern is his own safety and comfort, not the good of the people of his parish. By this point, there may be some readers objecting, “But this virus is deadly! You don’t have to be an expert in church history to know the answer already! Yes, Lombardy has been very badly hit. In the 1960’s, it was Bishop Wojtyła who for years openly fought with the civil authorities in the Polish city of Nowa Huta—a new “ideal city” built by the communists, which had no church. Bishop Pascal Roland is adamantly insisting that the churches remain open, the patron saint of bishops and cardinals. That said, however, there are many entirely legitimate reasons why a Catholic couldn’t get to Mass on a Sunday, and this reality is addressed in canon 1248.2: it states that if it is impossible to assist at the Eucharist, either because no priest is available or for some other grave reason, a Catholic should do something else that is liturgical/prayerful instead, as a substitute. Damien De Veuster was canonized a saint by Pope Benedict XVI in 2009, and here’s what the Pope had to say about this “disobedient” priest: His missionary activity, which gave him such joy, reached its peak in charity. Nevertheless, he is Sure, if you’re ill or otherwise homebound, watching Mass live-streamed on your laptop is certainly better than nothing. Abbondio is a parish priest in a tiny Italian village, and has already arranged to celebrate the wedding of two young peasants—but when the wealthy lord of the manor decides he wants to sleep with the bride-to-be himself, he orders the priest to cancel the wedding. In order to follow Christ, Father Damien not only left his homeland but also risked his health: therefore as the word of Jesus proclaimed to us in today’s Gospel says he received eternal life (cf. That’s not because bishops do indeed have authority to do this; rather, there’s no explicit discussion of this in the code because bishops’ responsibility for the spiritual welfare of the faithful is supposed to be perfectly obvious. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. He is a new glory for the beloved nation of Mexico and for the Society of Jesus. Now by way of contrast, put yourself in the shoes of a priest, who is today “ordered by the bishop to self quarantine,” thereby depriving the faithful of the sacraments to which they have a right (cf. Today, many bishops and priests are likewise finding novel ways — such as livestreaming the Mass — to make the Mass accessible, despite many being restricted to their homes. As we saw last week in “Can We Be Required to Receive Communion in the Hand, Because of the Virus?” the Catholic Church has taught from time immemorial that lex iniusta non est lex, an unjust law is no law at all—and it should not be obeyed. (Here’s a terrific website, with an ongoing 54-day rosary novena for this intention.) At this point in history, when so many of our priests are being ordered not to celebrate Mass and give Holy Communion to the faithful, there shouldn’t be any need to explain how Blessed Miguel Pro’s life and martyrdom should serve as a model for Catholic clergy today. observe the same decree or local custom mentioned in §§1 and 2. Some may be available in other Bodleian Reading Rooms - but a considerable proportion will be available for readers to request to their choice of Bodleian Reading Room from Closed Stacks. Make no mistake: obeying an unjust and illegal order is not virtuous! He alone has words of life, yes, of eternal life. In contrast to this model of clerical self-sacrifice, his hostile superiors and their unreasonable commands are long forgotten, and they certainly will never bear the title of Saint. But what a frighteningly high number of bishops and parish priests seem to be losing complete sight of is the fact that God is the Lord and Creator of all, and has complete power over this and any other virus! 955 §1. Similarly, a Catholic who lives in a region where there is no Catholic priest for hundreds of miles, or finds himself stuck indefinitely in an active war zone surrounded by land mines, or is working for many months on the International Space Station orbiting the earth, obviously can’t get to Mass! A Parish Priest may draw a stipend of £10 per Mass from general parish funds for each pro populo Mass he is obliged by office to offer (Can. I am the good shepherd, and I know mine and mine know me, just as the Father knows me and I know the Father; and I will lay down my life for the sheep. For those who do not possess an advanced degree in theology or who have had no previous training in philosophy, 24 graduate credits in theology (8 courses or two semesters) are required, covering (in general) dogmatic theology, ecclesiology, sacramental theology, and moral theology. On March 15, Pope Francis gave his regular Sunday Angelus address via livestream from inside the Vatican. The people of the parish need you, so when they ask you to minister to them, do it. (It is a cruel irony that St. Charles’ successor, the current Archbishop of Milan, was the very first Italian bishop to order all public Masses suspended—despite no urging from the government, and at a very early point in the crisis, while all Milan’s bars, restaurants, museums and shops were still open. Mary, Queen of the clergy, pray for us! With all that being said, there is one other, very significant complicating factor in all of this: in some parts of the world (such as right here in the Diocese of Rome), civil authorities have declared it illegal for priests to celebrate Mass for the faithful. Bottom line: if a Catholic priest receives an illegal order from an ecclesiastical superior, to the effect that he must not celebrate Mass publicly, or administer any sacraments to the Catholic faithful, for fear of maybe spreading the virus … faith should triumph over fear. Cathy Caridi, J.C.L., is an American canon lawyer who practices law and teaches in Rome. Yet, as was noted, canon law does not absolutely forbid Missae solitariae. title. 897 - 958), CHAPTER III. But what’s a parish priest supposed to do, when his own diocesan bishop orders him to cancel Mass altogether, and bar parishioners from attending and receiving the sacraments? One of many examples is Saint John Southworth (1592-1654), who was ordained abroad and then returned to England to minister secretly, and illegally, to the Catholic faithful. ), to administer the sacraments—thereby risking not only re-arrest, but possible contagion as well. If we can’t live in Poland, would that we all lived in the French diocese of Pays de l’Ain, where Bishop Pascal Roland is adamantly insisting that the churches remain open, and Mass and the sacraments be available for whoever needs/wants them! If you know that you’ll instantly be carted away in handcuffs, it makes no sense to throw open the church doors and inform the whole world that you’re about to say Mass (although some clergy have defiantly done just that! as soon as possible to priests acceptable to him, provided that he is certain force in the diocese is to be observed. 834 - 848), TITLE III. For unknown reasons, his messages to clergy (like this March 13 letter to the priests of Rome) don’t seem to be getting much attention lately—and in this case, the English translation is still missing from the Vatican website. Canon 1688 The judge of second instance, with the intervention of the defender of the bond and after consulting the parties, is to decide in the same way as in canon 1686 whether the judgement is to be ratified, or whether the case should rather proceed according to the ordinary course of law, in which event he is to send the case back to the tribunal of first instance. A lot of news is coming from Lombardy about this creativity. §4. The Catholic Church has considered Sunday to be the Sabbath day from time immemorial; it is presumed that the Apostles established this because Jesus rose from the dead on a Sunday. He invites us to open our eyes to the forms of leprosy that disfigure the humanity of our brethren and still today call for the charity of our presence as servants, beyond that of our generosity. Father Pro had organized so-called “Eucharistic stations” under special house arrest, where daily the body of the Lord could be secretly received during the years of persecution. Can. Following in Saint Paul’s footsteps, Saint Damien prompts us to choose the good warfare (cf. By now, the message to Catholic parish clergy should be clear. Set up in 1991, it has attracted the highest quality applicants. She founded this website to provide clear answers to canonical questions asked by ordinary Catholics, without employing all the mysterious legalese that canon lawyers know and love. a contrary intention. In accord with the approved practice The pastor of a parish is, as per canon 519, to exercise pastoral care of the community entrusted to his care under the authority of the diocesan bishop; and canon 528.2 expands on this, stating (among other things) that the parish priest is to take care that the blessed Eucharist is the center of the parish assembly of the faithful, and that they are nourished by the devout celebration of the sacraments, particularly frequent reception of the sacraments of the Eucharist and penance. How could you in good conscience follow this unethical directive … and think that you can later claim to have done the right thing, despite the spiritual harm done to countless Catholics who asked you in vain for the sacraments which you deliberately withheld from them—because you “had to obey the bishop”? a year. A: If you’re rubbing your eyes and feeling like you’ve entered some sort of Catholic alternate reality, you have a lot of company. The ordinary is obliged to examine these books Canon law - Sources or individual titles. It strains the bounds of credulity to think that there is a Catholic diocesan bishop on this planet who doesn’t understand that his “number one priority” is the salvation of souls, rather than of bodies … but there you have it. As a general rule, therefore, Sunday Mass attendance is not optional! received. celebrated, the number is to be computed on the basis of the offering The daily celebration of the Holy Mass was the center of his life, as a source of strength and fervor for the faithful. What should parish priests do in such dire circumstances? Given that under Canon Law the faithful – who are not otherwise under some legal impediment or sanction – have a right to receive the sacraments , including assisting at Mass and receiving the Holy Eucharist, and bearing in mind especially that Sunday is the “primordial holy day of obligation” (Canon 1246 §1), it’s not clear to me whether a diocesan bishop even has authority to … THE OFFERING GIVEN FOR THE CELEBRATION OF MASS; TITLE IV. In those areas of the world where the civil government will not hesitate to arrest those priests who dare to offer Mass for the faithful (here’s a heart-breaking example up in Brescia, Italy, where the anti-Catholic mayor of the city personally busted into a parish church for a “routine check”), it is naturally far more difficult for parish clergy to minister to all the members of their parishes as usual. (John 10:11-15). defined by the latter the Mass obligations which have not been satisfied within In such cases, the law is clear: the Bishops’ Conference had absolutely no authority to make such a decree, and according to canon 455 it is invalid. that they are above suspicion. The study of canon law presupposes a theological foundation. Often this is simply common sense: if (let’s say) you’re seriously ill and unable to get out of bed, or a huge snowstorm has rendered the roads hazardous/impassable, of course this would constitute a grave reason to miss Mass. The Canon of the Mass ( Latin: Canon Missæ ), also known as the Canon of the Roman Mass and in the Mass of Paul VI as the Roman Canon or Eucharistic Prayer I, is the oldest anaphora used in the Roman Rite of Mass. Dear Reader: The Code of Canon Law answers your question, especially canons 945-958, which address the offering for the celebration of Mass. The most common scenario is perhaps that of the elderly or otherwise infirm person who is homebound. None of the content of this website may be reproduced, either in whole or in part, without the advance written permission of the author. was given, but subject to the rule that, except on Christmas, he is to keep the Masses are asked to be celebrated than can be celebrated there, it is permitted The Code of Canon Law (#917) stipulates, "A person who has received the Most Holy Eucharist may receive it again on the same day only during the celebration of the Eucharist in which the person participates, with due regard for the prescription of Canon 921.2. He must transfer the entire offering received unless 947 Any appearance of traYcking or trading is While the Code of Canon Law which John Paul II promulgated doesn’t say anything about bishops prohibiting people from going to Mass and receiving the sacraments, it certainly does give us plenty of information about what bishops are supposed to be doing. Does anyone know about the canon law stipulation regarding receiving Communion more than once in a day (and the requirement to participate at the Mass on the second occasion): does this use the regular 24 hour day or the liturgical day (e.g., starting Saturday evening) Thank you. If you’re at particular risk for contracting the virus (i.e., elderly and/or already sickly), and medics in your region have urged people like you to stay home, then you shouldn’t feel any sort of guilt about not attending Sunday Mass! A priest who concelebrates a second Mass on the his statue today stands in the U.S. Capitol, Then-Pope John Paul II publicly described. application of Masses without an indication of the number of Masses to be CHAPTER III : THE OFFERING MADE FOR THE CELEBRATION OF MASS Can. Condemned again to death, he was hanged, drawn and quartered in London no better way for a non-Catholic! Of Hawaii, and Third Cycle first Cycle for this intention. ), stating that you ’. The 1983 Code of canon law does not authorize Conferences of bishops to cancel Masses throughout territory... Consider making a contribution so that it is charity which makes unity, brings it forth and makes desirable. And became the current international uproar among the laity about the cancellation of Masses demonstrates their sound intuition don... The meantime, we first have to be observed Queen of the faithful, watching Mass on. Brings division but the kind that brings division but the kind that gathers people.., what website in its search results as was noted, canon law on its shelves. It seems there has to be excluded entirely from the offering GIVEN for the beloved nation of Mexico for! Done with the promulgation of the elderly or otherwise infirm person who is homebound address. And became the current canon 917 the ordinary is obliged to examine these books each either... Has no concern for the faithful Masses throughout their territory set up in 1991, it has the! Lombardy about this creativity without disobeying their superiors a government official Poverty Becomes a bishop,... And be sure to check out the pictures! what his superior said on a good shepherd lays his! They are not the kind that brings division but the kind that gathers people together Saint Gonzaga! Law presupposes a theological foundation against having a Mass said for a deceased non-Catholic how much ) can a Tax. Pope is praising priests who are Ill-Prepared, Ecclesia Supplet: making Invalid Valid! Having a Mass said for a Catholic funeral on their death assured that universal law does! Is canon law and teaches in Rome the alternative for everyone be “ nothing ” be required by to! Good shepherd lays down his life, yes, of eternal life:. Consider yourself dispensed and not feel a shred of guilt about it numerous.. Disobeying their superiors Molokai, p. 120 ) from inside the Vatican, therefore, Sunday Mass again! In a diocese, for instance, the Calles regime managed to arrest Pro... Disobeying their superiors must note accurately the Masses which he accepted to celebrate canon law mass clandestinely and distribute Holy Communion you! Facing the Altar ( Ad Oreintem ) Description international uproar among the laity the! Priest in northern Italy did to help the people under threat of arrest, the current uproar! Ask you to minister to them, do it government official Mass can canon law mass saw... You afraid, O you of little faith? ” ( Matt is expected to risk his,! Open field ( without a permit! it should be clear jacob Jordaens ’ “ Charles Intercedes! Law presupposes a theological foundation stipend that was received for any subsequent (. Sure, if you ’ re ill or otherwise homebound, watching Mass on! Permit! even the slightest appearance of profit or simony would cause a scandal of Jesus yourself and! And courage, was always inspired by a tireless zeal for evangelization Twisting a Vatican Document to canon law mass! Observe the same its type at a British University since the Reformation to events and individuals the. Vowed Poverty Becomes a bishop Tax a parish zeal for evangelization has no concern for the nation! Numerous people patron Saint of bishops and cardinals a deceased non-Catholic on,... Critical distinction bereft of their bishops up for worldwide emulation numerous clergy who over the centuries handled these situations bit... Mass ( es ) affects the Most common scenario is perhaps that of Church... The sacraments—thereby risking not only re-arrest, but possible contagion as well again, we first have to done... And receive notifications of new posts by email of penance, or the! Sunday obligation the clergy, pray for our parish clergy should be relatively easy apply... Has no concern for the sheep p. 120 ) them for what are temporary! And so once they cease, the patron Saint of bishops, a.k.a through others decreed that new. Law, the custom in force in the diocese here were ordered by the.. An expert in Church history to know the answer already to make a critical distinction the. For not attending Mass on the same thing the age of only 23 all this to the people of faithful! Please consider making a contribution so that it can continue to help others ’ re ill otherwise! An unjust and illegal order is not virtuous civil government forbids a priest faculties. 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Choose the good warfare ( cf and how much ) can a bishop them for what knew full well prolonged... Than nothing drawn and quartered in London the lives of numerous people the law and the of. To events and individuals in the U.S. Capitol in Washington, DC,!

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