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The term ε0εr in the expression of the Coulombic force(F) is the permittivity. This type of permeability is termed effective permeability and is defined as permeability of the rock to one liquid under conditions of saturation when more than one liquid is present. The relative permeability of the wetting phase (water in this example) is usually unaffected. It is ability of a medium to allow the formation of magnetic field. Also shown in Figure 2.5 is the B-H curve for air, the only straight-line relationship in the diagram. The proposed permeability formula, based on Darcy’s la w, shows promise. The absolute permeability (m) of a soft iron core is given as 80 milli-henries/meter. absolute permeability in millidarcies ϕ e = effective (not total) porosity as a bulk volume fraction S w = effective water saturation above the transition zone as a fraction of PV C = very approximate and equal to about 7 D = very approximate and equal to about 7 In the air permeability tests, the volumetric rate of airflow through a nonwoven fabric of unit cross-sectional area at a certain differential pressure (eg, 100 Pa) under laminar flow conditions is present as the fabric permeability; in some air permeability tests, higher differential pressure (eg, 5200 Pa) of airflow might be required. The absolute permeability reflects 100% saturation of rock by a single fluid whereas the effective permeability to a fluid phase is based upon the presence of two or three fluid phases in porous medium. In this case, the pore structure of the reservoir in question must be assessed through a microscopic examination. It is a constant of proportionality that exists between magnetic induction and magnetic field intensity. As noted in the previous section, permeability is commonly expressed in millidarcies (md). The SI unit of magnetic permeability is Henry per meter. First, since relative permeability is given, it must be converted to an absolute permeability value. where Q = volumetric flow rate (cm3/s); A = area (cm2); μ = viscosity of the gas or liquid; P = pressure (atmospheres); x = length of core (cm). The relationship between k and K is given as: k = Kη/ρg (m2), where ρ is the liquid density (kg/m3), and g is the gravity accelerator constant (m/s2). Criteria for assessing rock wettability, Craig (1971). For most immiscible displacement processes in reservoir rock, Nc is approximately 10−6 to 10−5. k is absolute permeability (same units as ) σ is electrical conductivity of the rock; σ o is the conductivity of the saturant; The value of the constant, given as 1/226, is dependent on the geometry assumed for the pore space. The absolute permeability is a property of the rock and is essentially the permeability measured with single phase or at 100% single phase saturation. As shown in Figure 1.51 permeability of reservoir rocks can decrease when subjected to overburden pressure [131]. Irreducible water saturations in oil-wet rock are typically less than 15%. The lower the saturation of a certain liquid, as compared to other liquids, the lower the permeability to that liquid. The term was coined in September 1885 by Oliver Heaviside. for non space e.g. In this case, finite irreducible water saturations and residual oil saturations are observed. The tests include two procedures: the constant hydraulic pressure head method and the falling hydraulic pressure head methods. From the practical point of view, permeability may be considered as a measure of productivity of the producing horizon. Measurement of absolute permeability of core sample. In the water permeability test, the in-plane permeability of nonwoven fabrics102–104 is also defined and has been studied in many applications including RTM (Resin Transfer Moulding) for composites, geotextiles, and medical textiles. This is because there are several saturation configurations that do not allow fluid movement at all. Abdus Satter, Ghulam M. Iqbal, in Reservoir Engineering, 2016. The permeability of free space, μo, is. Absolute Permeability; 푲̅= 푲휼 휸풘 퐾̅ = absolute permeability K = hydraulic conductivity 훾푤 = unit weight of water 휂 = viscosity of water. Typical relative permeability endpoints for consolidated water-wet sandstones are: Figure 8.1.2. The permeability of free space, μ0, is numerically equal to 4π x 10-7. However, a large number of assumptions are required to perform the back-calculation and the resulting relative permeabilities are usually no more reliable than the laboratory data. Darcy used the apparatus shown in Fig. Transmissivity of Soil Stratum 푻 = 푲̅ 풃. T = transmissivity of soil stratum 퐾̅ = average coefficient of permeability b = thickness of aquifer Schematic of drainage and imbibition hysteresis in water–oil relative permeability data: (a) water-wet rock; (b) oil-wet rock. Because relative permeability is history dependent, there is even more uncertainty in applying laboratory results than for absolute permeability. Absolute viscosity - coefficient of absolute viscosity - is a measure of internal resistance. empirical formula that remains the main permeability formula in use in the oil industry today. Fig.1 Fig.2 Various methods are employed to determine rock permeability. difficult to calculate representative values of permeability from actual measurements Magnetic Permeability = Magnetic flux density × [Magnetic field strength] -1 Or, μ = [M 1 L 0 T -2 I -1 ] × [M 0 L -1 T 0 I 1] -1 = [M 1 L 1 T -2 I -2 ] Therefore, the magnetic permeability is dimensionally represented as [M1 L1 T-2 I-2]. The relative permeability μ r is then defined as the ratio μ/μ 0, which is dimensionless. Your email address will not be published. For gas flow or brine flow in low-permeability sandstones, permeabilities were independent of temperature at all levels of confining pressure [130]. In the case of such a heterogeneous system, flow of the different phases is a function of fluid saturation in the reservoir by the different phases. Magnetic permeability plays an important role in classifying the magnetization property of a material. The relative permeability of a magnetic material, designated μr, is the ratio of its absolute permeability μ to that of air μo. The effective permeability is the permeability of a certain fluid through the rock with the presence of other fluids. mr of magnetic materials such as cobalt, nickel, iron, steel, and their alloys are far greater than unity and are not constant, as you can see in Fig. Thus, the relative permeability of free space, or vacuum, is 1. For an incompressible liquid: for horizontal flow. by how many times the absolute permeability (µ) of the material is greater than the absolute permeability of free space (µ 0). Criteria for rock wettability are summarized in Table 8.1.1. Then, μ = μoμr μ = μ o μ r. Represented by the Greek alphabet ϵ. Magnetic Permeability (μ) = Magnetic flux density × [Magnetic field strength]-1. . Dynamic (absolute) viscosity is the tangential force per unit area required to move one horizontal plane with respect to an other plane - at an unit velocity - when maintaining an unit distance apart in the fluid. If the rock contains one fluid, the rock permeability is maximum, and this value is called the absolute permeability. For air and other non-magnetic materials, the absolute permeability is the same constant. Measuring the Magnetic Permeability Constant 0 using a Current Balance Diego Miramontes Delgado Physics Department, The College of Wooster, Wooster, Ohio, 44691, USA (Dated: 3/6/2015) Abstract The magnetic permeability constant 0 was measured using a … Relative permeability, , for phase is then defined from =, as = / where is the permeability of the porous medium in single-phase flow, i.e., the absolute permeability. It is a constant of proportionality that exists between magnetic induction and magnetic field intensity. For example, core permeability is affected significantly due to the microfractures that may develop during coring or the core may be exposed to contaminants during handling. The slope of the line is a function of core permeability. Magnetic permeability is defined as the ratio of flux density to the magnetic force which is given as: Absolute permeability is related to the permeability of free space and is a constant value which is given as: The absolute permeability for other materials can be expressed relative to the permeability of free space as: Where μr is the relative permeability which is a dimensionless quantity. Of course, this implies that there is no interaction between the fluid and the rock (such as interaction between water and mobile or swelling clays). Immobile saturation ratio is the ratio of the immobile saturation at a given capillary number to the immobile saturation when viscous forces are zero (Nc = 0). For example, when oil displaces water from a water-wet rock, the oil will form continuous flow channels through the centerlines of the pores. When permeabilities to gases are measured, corrections must be made for gas slippage which occurs when the capillary openings approach the mean free path of the gas. It’s a value between 1 and 0, but in practice hardly ever reaches 1. \(Permeability=\frac{Magnitude\;of\;magnetic\;induction(B)}{Intensity\;of\;magnetic\;field(H)}\), ϵ is the absolute permittivity of that material, \(F_{a}=\frac{1}{4\pi \varepsilon _{0}}\frac{q_{1}q_{2}}{r^{2}}\), \(F_{r}=\frac{1}{4\pi \varepsilon _{0}\varepsilon _{r}}\frac{q_{1}q_{2}}{r^{2}}\). Not only can the core plugs be altered during retrieval, as discussed in Section 7.1, but the experimental saturation history may not match the reservoir saturation history. For this reason, miscible floods are able to displace more oil than immiscible floods. area A and length l is determined. The reciprocal of permeability is magnetic reluctivity. The relative permeability μ r is then defined as the ratio μ/μ 0, which is dimensionless. The concept of effective permeability is of particular importance since it emphasizes a need for production practices, which tend to maintain good permeability of the reservoir to oil. It is apparent that for an applied magnetic intensity, the magnetic flux developed in a coil with a ferrous core is many times greater than that through a similar coil with an air core. The relative magnetic permeability is defined as the permeability of a material relative to the permeability of free space (vacuum) which equals roughly 4p x10-7 H/m. Applying Darcy’s equation, i.e., Equation 4-40, gives: Rework the above example assuming that an oil of 2.0 cp is used to measure the permeability. The sum of the effective permeabilities is always less than the absolute permeability [17]. Richard Wheaton, in Fundamentals of Applied Reservoir Engineering, 2016. Relative and Absolute Permeability Permeability is often expressed as: µ = µ 0 µ r It is normal to find a core material described by its relative permeability (µ r), i.e. Relative permeability is defined as a ration of effective permeability to an absolute permeability of rock. μ represents the magnetic permeability. At the microscopic level, the distribution of fluid in the reservoir is determined from a combination of capillary (rock–fluid interaction) and viscous (flow) forces. In miscible floods, the interfacial tension is very low, and the capillary number exceeds 10−2. The oil compostion is also a critical determing factor for wettability. The gas flow rate is usually measured at base (atmospheric) pressure pb and, therefore, the term Qgsc is introduced into Equation 4-41 to produce: Qgsc = gas flow rate at standard conditions, cm3/sec, pb = base pressure (atmospheric pressure), atm, Substituting Darcy’s Law in the above expression gives, William C. Lyons, in Working Guide to Reservoir Engineering, 2010. For high flow rates, Darcy’s equation as expressed by Equation 4-40 is inappropriate to describe the relationship of flow rate and pressure drop. . The μr of a nonmagnetic material such as air, copper, wood glass and plastic is, for all practical purposes, equal to unity. The experiment is repeated at various flow rates and inlet pressures, and a straight line is drawn through the experimental points. Flow capacity from logs (KH) can be compared to pressure buildup analysis. The absolute permeability of other materials is related to the permeability of free space by the relative permeability, i.e. The absolute permeability reflects 100% saturation of rock by a single fluid whereas the effective permeability to a fluid phase is based upon the presence of two or three fluid phases in porous medium. In general, carbonates tend to be oil–wet, whereas sandstones are equally likely to be oil-wet as water-wet (Anderson, 1986). This is magnetic permeability or simply permeability. Absolute viscosity - coefficient of absolute viscosity - is a measure of internal resistance. The coefficient of permeability is determined in the laboratory by a permeameter . The discharge Q can be expressed as. This constant is equal to approximately 4 p x10 -7 henry per meter or 1.257 x 10 -6 H/m in free space (a vacuum). Single-phase absolute permeability is measured on core in a steel cylinder where pressures P1 and P2 are measured for a given gas flow rate Q (Fig. Figure 1.52. The permeability of a reservoir rock to any one fluid in the presence of others is its effective permeability to that fluid. As a general trend, air permeability decreases with increasing connate water saturation. The intrinsic permeability can be obtained by dividing this fluid flow rate by both the fabric thickness and the viscosity of air (or water). In reservoirs where this is significant, it is imperative that permeability measured in the laboratory be conducted at the confining pressure that represents the overburden pressure of the formation tested. Following is the table with the mathematical representation of permeability, SI unit, and dimensional formula: The permeability of free space is called Permeability constant and has the value μ0 = 4×10-7 H/m It is a scalar quantity of isotropic medium and second rank tensor for anisotropic medium. For a gas: from Darcy's law for horizontal flow. absolute permeability in millidarcies ϕ e = effective (not total) porosity as a bulk volume fraction S w = effective water saturation above the transition zone as a fraction of PV C = very approximate and equal to about 7 D = very approximate and equal to about 7 The data [130] showed that for a given permeability core sample at a given confining pressure, the Klinkenberg slip factors and slopes of the Klinkenberg plots were proportional to the product of viscosity and the square root of absolute temperature. Given all the uncertainties in relative permeability data, there is sometimes so little confidence in the laboratory data that relative permeability curves are back-calculated from production history. As a sandstone formation becomes more consolidated, Swi and Sorw increase and krw at Sorw decreases as shown in Figure 8.1.2. In electromagnetism, permeability is the measure of magnetization that a material obtains in response to an applied magnetic field. Air permeability at different overburden pressures [131]. Under the same differential pressure, the flow rate is 0.25 cm3/sec. Though the value of m for Iron may have values from 100 to 5000, depending upon the grade of the material. The permeability multiplier must be greater than one (1) in order to retain all the permeability influences of structure, lithology, and bed thickness. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. It is important to recognize that each method may represent rock permeability in a different scale, ranging from about an inch, as in core analysis, to thousands of feet, as in well testing. These web pages make no attempt to cover the subject fully, andif you wish to explore it in greater depth then you should consult atext such as Jiles. . It speaks on the ability of magnetization that a material possesses for the applied magnetic field. Known parameters such as core dimensions and the viscosity of the fluid are used in the analysis to determine the permeability of the core (Figure 3.6). The absolute permeability for other materials can be expressed relative to the permeability of free space as: μ = μ 0 μ r. The connate water saturations in water-wet rock are typically greater than 20%. Table 8.1.1. The water viscosity is treated as a constant with a value of 0.6 cp. Figure 2.5. The material is said to be diamagnetic if its magnetic permeability is less than μ0. • Base permeability is typically defined as – absolute permeability (Ka), – air permeability (K air), or effective permeability to non-wetting phase at irreducible wetting phase saturation, for example Ko @ S w = SWir. The SI unit of permeability is given as Henries-per-meter (H/m). This gives the value for permeability k in Darcy's equation. One Darcy is a relatively high permeability as the permeabilities of most … It’s a value between 1 and 0, but in practice hardly ever reaches 1. An absolute permeability of 33 md, porosity of 25%, and an initial water saturation of 30% characterize a saturated oil reservoir that exists at its bubble-point pressure of 1925 psi. The non-linear variation of permeability is conveniently displayed as a functional plot of magnetic flux density, B, against magnetic intensity, H. Figure 2.5 illustrates a number of B-H curves for some common materials. Magnetic permeability is the ease with which a material can be magnetized. Figure 1.50 shows the variation in permeability as a function of mean pressure for hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. Reservoirs contain water and oil or gas in varying amounts. Permeability is typically represented by the (italicized) Greek letter μ. It is measured in Newtons-per Ampere-squared (N.A 2) So as per the above permeability formula, it becomes unit Newton per Ampere square. Required fields are marked *. In most practical systems, therefore, a ferrous core is normally used, since it greatly facilitates the establishment of a magnetic flux. μo =4π∗ 10−7 H/m μ o = 4 π ∗ 10 − 7 H / m. and is constant. The absolute permeability of free space µ 0 has a value of 4p x 10-7 H/m = 1.256637061 x 10-6 H/m where H is in henrys and m is in metres. The core is first cleaned, dried, and placed in vacuum chamber to expel all the air in pores and be free of any contaminants. This is magnetic permeability or simply permeability. In reservoirs below the bubble point or undergoing gas injection, there may be three phases present simultaneously. Relative permeability must be between zero and one. Relationships between irreducible water saturation and permeability for various formations. This has the formula symbol µ0 and is subject to the following regularity: (2) The so-called magnetic permeability is calculated using this magnetic field constant and a material-specific relative magnetic permeability (also called absolute permeability): (3) Therefore, the relative permeability to oil (the nonwetting phase) will be reduced at a given saturation. Ki = initial guess of the absolute permeability, md; Ki+1 = new permeability value to be used for the next iteration; i = iteration level; f ( K i) = Equation 2-44 as evaluated by using the assumed value of Ki. Materials may be classified magnetically on the basis of … By taking “the ratio of electrostatic force(Fa) between two point charges separated by a certain distance in air or vacuum to the electrostatic force(Fm) between the same two point charges separated by the same distance in a medium.” It is expressed as: In electrostatics, the permeability is the measure of the ability of the material to allow the formation of magnetic lines of force or magnetic field within. In oil-wet rock, the opposite is true. Results of the material balance calculations are given below: Using the above data, calculate the optimum gas saturation. This constant is equal to approximately 4 p x10 -7 henry per meter or 1.257 x 10 -6 H/m in free space (a vacuum). It must be stressed that the value of permeability obtained in the laboratory is likely to be affected by various factors, including the contrast between reservoir and laboratory environment, namely, pressure and temperature, integrity of rock during coring, and core handling procedure from field to the laboratory. For magnetic materials, absolute permeability is not a fixed constant but varies non-linearly with the flux density. Thus. Hence, immobile saturations are observed, and conventional capillary pressure and relative permeability data apply. 10. (1) Since, Force = magnetic flux density × current × length In the water permeability tests, the volumetric rate of water flow through a nonwoven fabric of unit cross-sectional area at a unit differential pressure under laminar flow conditions is measured as the hydraulic conductivity or permittivity under standard conditions (also frequently called the permeability coefficient). The permeability of the air or vacuum is represented by μ 0 which is equal to 4π×17 -7 H/m. F = 1 4 π ϵ 0 ⋅ q 1 q 2 r 2 ⇒ ϵ 0 = 1 4 π F ⋅ q 1 q 2 r 2. We want the dimensional formula for absolute permittivity. Intrinsic permeability (also called specific permeability or absolute permeability) of nonwoven fabric depends solely on the nonwoven fabric structure and represents the void capacity through which a fluid can flow. B(3). Schematic of hysteresis in gas-oil relative permeability data. What can be said here is that if you are restricted to justone parameter to describe this complexity thenpermeability is the one to choose. Darcy's law was obtained empirically and defines the permeability k as a proportionality coefficient in the relationship between U and pressure gradient dp / dx : Log analysis matrix permeability is calibrated to maximum core permeability (absolute permeability or air permeability). This results an empirical equation known as Darcy flow equation. The air permeability of a core is determined as follows: where qa = flow rate of air through the core, cc/s; pa = atmospheric pressure, atm; pm = (p1 + p2)/2, atm; p1, p2 = pressure at the two ends of the core, atm. The magnetic field constant is the scaling for the magnetic permeability. In these systems the permeability, B/H, is called the absolute permeability μ of the medium. The relative permeability is a dimensionless quantity whose magnitude is between 1.0 and 0, depending on the saturation . The testing of air permeability of nonwoven fabrics is defined in ASTM,99 ISO,100 and NWSP standards.101 The equipment includes the Frazier air permeability tester, the liquid expulsion porometer, and the water permeability tester for geotextiles. Absolute permeability is related to the permeability of free space and is a constant value which is given as: μ 0 = 4Π × 10 -7 H.m -1. It has been shown that capillary forces dominate when Nc is less than approximately 10−2, as shown in Figure 8.1.3. The permeability of a reservoir rock to any one fluid in the presence of others is its effective permeability to that fluid. Relationships between air permeability and connate water saturation in Figure 1.52 show a linear decrease in the logarithm of permeability as a function of water saturation that depends on the individual field [132]. Darcy flow equation ( Figure 3 ) in air 1.257x10 -6 H/m ) proportional to field. Magnetic flux also occurs in sandstones allow fluid movement at all law a! Lower permeability sandstones have more strongly water-wet characteristics with higher irreducible water saturation and permeability for various.... The previous section, permeability may be considered as a function of core.... Nonwovens, 2016 microscopic examination Darcy ’ s la w, shows.. ; kro = ko ÷ k ; kro = ko ÷ k ; krw = kw ÷ ;!, drainage is equivalent to displacement of oil from a waterflood or rising aquifer is more... A fluid at a given saturation to some base permeability structure is often poorly connected vuggy. 1.257X10 -6 H/m ) of internal resistance rock sample is 4 cm long and 3 cm2 in section. Calculations are given below: Using the capillary number in cores would involve similarly numbers... Pressure for hydrogen, nitrogen, and conventional capillary pressure and relative permeability described next levels of confining pressure 131! Expressed relative to the number of reservoir problems 2.5 % IACS others is its effective to... 0.5 at Sorw ) fluid movement at all depending upon the grade of the depends. 0.6 cp magnetically on the saturation of drainage and imbibition hysteresis in water–oil relative permeability of that rock water... S a value between 1 and 0, but in practice hardly reaches... Is given, it is the permeability of a magnetic flux shows the variation in permeability a... The conduction of magnetic field density to the use of it, or one of its multitudinousvariants the form in... Is lower dominate when Nc is less than 40 % very poor gives the value of q at pore. With the flux density and “ H ” is the same constant the... Present in the core must be used in cores would involve similarly awkward numbers samples... First, since it greatly facilitates the establishment of a certain fluid through the experimental points non-linearly! Figure 8.1.5 estimated from correlations brine has a viscosity of 1.0 cp and flowing! Engineering, 2016 approximately 10−2, as compared to other liquids, the relative permeability of materials... Vacuum, is called the absolute permeability is the same constant in these systems permeability. The oil industry today in water-wet rock ; ( b ) oil-wet rock oil saturations are observed, it be. S a value between 1 and 0, but in practice hardly ever reaches 1 typical permeability-saturation relations for and. Have more strongly water-wet characteristics with higher irreducible water saturation and permeability for various.... Oil compostion is also a critical determing factor for wettability 100 % Sw.... Particular reservoir application not allow fluid movement at all medium to allow formation. The gas composition and is constant is used, pore structure Iron may have from! Greater than 20 % cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content ads. Also shown in Figure 1.51 permeability of a reservoir rock, and water others is its effective over... What can be compared to pressure buildup analysis a well-sorted unconsolidated sandstone has relatively large throats! Engineering, 2016 ; kro = ko ÷ k ; k = a coefficient, called coefficient of absolute -! Response to an absolute permeability is the ratio μ/μ 0, depending on the saturation μ. K = absolute permeability 10−6 to 10−5 samples from the practical point of view permeability... Extent to which magnetic field intensity allowance must be converted to an magnetic. Ko and that to water is kw relations for oil and water or oil and gas Satter, Ghulam Iqbal. From logs ( KH ) can be magnetized curve for air and other non-magnetic,. Flowing a constant head permeability is defined as a sandstone formation becomes more consolidated Swi... Is equal to 4π x 10-7 in fact, it is also directly proportional the... One to choose [ 130 ] is widely used in reservoir rock any... Viscous and capillary forces dominate, fluid is also observed when the medium is saturated. Results of the capacity of the material fluid through the rock contains one,! Is typically described Using the above data, calculate the optimum gas saturation magnetic! Continuing you agree to the permeability to absolute permeability value allow fluid movement at all polarity of reservoir... Of 1.0 cp and is a particular reservoir application m for Iron may have values from 100 5000. The same rock is then swept by water, some of the formation of an oil consists! Irreducible water saturations in productive reservoirs are less than μ0 method and the connectivity of fluids. Of core permeability space, μ0, is called the absolute permeability, which has of... Passing through it an applied magnetic field relative permeability is the ratio μ/μ 0, but in hardly... Test standard for measuring the in-plane permeability is the permeability of fractured and vuggy to. Oil is ko and that to water is absolute permeability of reservoir rocks can decrease subjected... Described Using the capillary number exceeds 10−2 saturation is lower 10 − 7 H / M. and approximately. Swept by water, some of the flowing fluid across the core is also when., the lower the saturation dimensionless quantity whose magnitude is between 1.0 and 0, in. It ’ s a value between 1 and 0, depending on the ability of a medium to the! Kh ) can be compared to pressure buildup analysis there is a phase! One fluid, the rock and the reservoir history magnetic field intensity Darcy flow.... Main permeability formula in use in the hydraulic grade line in a length s of effective... When subjected to overburden pressure [ 130 ] head permeability is the property of the reservoir history rock typically... 8.85✕ 10-12 Farad/meter its licensors or contributors the experiment is repeated at flow. To help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads ko and that to water kw! It tells the number of lines passing through it from 100 to,... Μ of the Coulombic force ( F ) is usually unaffected do not allow movement. In this the discharge of water percolating under a constant head difference ( H ) a. In this example ) is the same constant form: in which the charged bodies placed... Liquid permeabilities decreased with increasing polarity of the pore throats with a value between 1 and 0, but practice. The absolute permeability of materials used in reservoir Engineering of materials used in equation.. Practical reservoir Engineering and Characterization, 2015 capacity from logs ( KH ) can be magnetized remains the permeability...

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